Conda Package and Environment Manager
We use Conda software packages, dependencies, and environments. conda was developed as part of the excellent Anaconda data science toolkit, but we have found that using conda and explicitly managing software environments is more robust over time than using Anaconda.
TODO: Write an intro to conda
Do not install Miniforge, Miniconda, or Anaconda on the Compute Canada HPC clusters or other HPC systems! It will almost certainly conflict with the HPC-optimized software environments on those system. If you need to install Python packages on an HPC system, please contact Doug for advice.
Miniforge is a minimal installer for Conda specific to conda-forge. It installs the conda package and environment manager tool, a recent version of Python, the packages that conda depends on, and a small number of other packages that are essential for creating and managing software environments.
The installers for Miniforge are linked on the Miniforge page. You can download them from there, and that is what you should do if you are working on Windows. But for Linux and MacOS you’ll be working with conda on the command-line in terminals sessions, so you might as well get started that way by using wget to download the installer script into your home directory.
On Linux use:
$ wget https://github.com/conda-forge/miniforge/releases/latest/download/Miniforge3-Linux-x86_64.sh
On MacOS use:
$ wget https://github.com/conda-forge/miniforge/releases/latest/download/Miniforge3-MacOSX-x86_64.sh
The installation instructions are in the “Unix-like platforms” section of the README of https://github.com/conda-forge/miniforge. In short:
Run the installer script via bash:
On Linux use:
$ bash Miniforge3-Linux-x86_64.sh
On MacOS use:
$ bash Miniforge3-MacOSX-x86_64.sh
Follow the prompts on the screen. Accept the defaults offered for all of the settings
To make the changes take effect, close and then re-open your terminal window.
Test your installation. In your terminal window, run the command conda list. A list of installed packages appears if it has been installed correctly; it looks something like:
# packages in environment at /home/dlatorne/miniconda3: # # Name Version Build Channel _libgcc_mutex 0.1 conda_forge conda-forge _openmp_mutex 4.5 1_gnu conda-forge brotlipy 0.7.0 py37h6b43d8f_1003 conda-forge bzip2 1.0.8 h7f98852_4 conda-forge c-ares 1.18.1 h7f98852_0 conda-forge ca-certificates 2021.10.8 ha878542_0 conda-forge certifi 2021.10.8 py37h9c2f6ca_1 conda-forge cffi 1.14.6 0_pypy37 conda-forge charset-normalizer 2.0.8 pyhd8ed1ab_0 conda-forge colorama 0.4.4 pyh9f0ad1d_0 conda-forge conda 4.10.3 py37h9c2f6ca_4 conda-forge conda-package-handling 1.7.3 py37h6b43d8f_1 conda-forge cryptography 36.0.0 py37h5c3f282_0 conda-forge expat 2.4.1 h9c3ff4c_0 conda-forge gdbm 1.18 h0a1914f_2 conda-forge icu 69.1 h9c3ff4c_0 conda-forge idna 3.1 pyhd3deb0d_0 conda-forge krb5 1.19.2 hcc1bbae_3 conda-forge libarchive 3.5.2 hccf745f_1 conda-forge libcurl 7.80.0 h2574ce0_0 conda-forge libedit 3.1.20191231 he28a2e2_2 conda-forge libev 4.33 h516909a_1 conda-forge libffi 3.4.2 h7f98852_5 conda-forge libgcc-ng 11.2.0 h1d223b6_11 conda-forge libgomp 11.2.0 h1d223b6_11 conda-forge libiconv 1.16 h516909a_0 conda-forge libmamba 0.19.0 h3985d26_0 conda-forge libmambapy 0.19.0 py37h9bd18e5_0 conda-forge libnghttp2 1.43.0 h812cca2_1 conda-forge libsolv 0.7.19 h780b84a_5 conda-forge libssh2 1.10.0 ha56f1ee_2 conda-forge libstdcxx-ng 11.2.0 he4da1e4_11 conda-forge libxml2 2.9.12 h885dcf4_1 conda-forge libzlib 1.2.11 h36c2ea0_1013 conda-forge lz4-c 1.9.3 h9c3ff4c_1 conda-forge lzo 2.10 h516909a_1000 conda-forge mamba 0.19.0 py37h47bf687_0 conda-forge ncurses 6.2 h58526e2_4 conda-forge openssl 1.1.1l h7f98852_0 conda-forge pip 21.3.1 pyhd8ed1ab_0 conda-forge pybind11-abi 4 hd8ed1ab_3 conda-forge pycosat 0.6.3 py37h6b43d8f_1009 conda-forge pyopenssl 21.0.0 pyhd8ed1ab_0 conda-forge pypy3.7 7.3.7 hbc09475_3 conda-forge pysocks 1.7.1 py37h9c2f6ca_4 conda-forge python 3.7.12 0_73_pypy conda-forge python_abi 3.7 2_pypy37_pp73 conda-forge readline 8.1 h46c0cb4_0 conda-forge reproc 14.2.3 h7f98852_0 conda-forge reproc-cpp 14.2.3 h9c3ff4c_0 conda-forge requests 2.26.0 pyhd8ed1ab_1 conda-forge ruamel_yaml 0.15.80 py37h6b43d8f_1006 conda-forge setuptools 59.4.0 py37h9c2f6ca_0 conda-forge six 1.16.0 pyh6c4a22f_0 conda-forge sqlite 3.37.0 h9cd32fc_0 conda-forge tk 8.6.11 h27826a3_1 conda-forge tqdm 4.62.3 pyhd8ed1ab_0 conda-forge urllib3 1.26.7 pyhd8ed1ab_0 conda-forge wheel 0.37.0 pyhd8ed1ab_1 conda-forge xz 5.2.5 h516909a_1 conda-forge yaml 0.2.5 h516909a_0 conda-forge yaml-cpp 0.6.3 he1b5a44_4 conda-forge zlib 1.2.11 h36c2ea0_1013 conda-forge zstd 1.5.0 ha95c52a_0 conda-forge
conda uses configuration settings in your
$HOME/.condarc file to supplement its default configuration.
You need to set up this configuration on each machine that you use conda on;
i.e. on your laptop,
and on the Waterhole workstation that you use
(which will cover all of the Waterhole/Ocean machines).
The conda config command is how you interact with the
Start by telling conda where you want to store your environments:
$ conda config --prepend envs_dirs $HOME/conda_envs/ $ mkdir $HOME/conda_envs/
The first of those lines tells conda that you want to put your environments
in a directory called
The second line creates that directory.
Storing environment directory trees outside of the
created by the installer means that if you need to re-install Miniforge
you can do so without destroying all of your environments.
If you want to see all of the conda configuration settings
(both the defaults,
and the supplements from your
you can use:
$ conda config --show
There are many, many things that you can configure in conda. If you want to see all of the gory details, please see the conda config docs.